Citation: Diamond inclusions suggest free flowing water at boundary between upper and lower mantle (2018, March 9) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-03-diamond-inclusions-free-boundary-upper.html More information: O. Tschauner et al. Ice-VII inclusions in diamonds: Evidence for aqueous fluid in Earth’s deep mantle, Science (2018). DOI: 10.1126/science.aao3030AbstractWater-rich regions in Earth’s deeper mantle are suspected to play a key role in the global water budget and the mobility of heat-generating elements. We show that ice-VII occurs as inclusions in natural diamond and serves as an indicator for such water-rich regions. Ice-VII, the residue of aqueous fluid present during growth of diamond, crystallizes upon ascent of the host diamonds but remains at pressures as high as 24 gigapascals; it is now recognized as a mineral by the International Mineralogical Association. In particular, ice-VII in diamonds points toward fluid-rich locations in the upper transition zone and around the 660-kilometer boundary.Press release A team of researchers from the U.S., China and Canada has found evidence in diamonds of free-flowing water in the boundary between Earth’s upper and lower mantle. In their paper published in the journal Science, the group describes analyzing inclusions in diamonds spewed from volcanoes and what they found. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. The researchers were looking for molecular forms of carbon dioxide as part of carbon cycling in the Earth’s mantle when they came across evidence of something else. They had collected diamonds spewed from volcanoes (or pushed to the surface by other geologic activity) in Zaire, China, Sierra Leone and other locations in southern Africa, and were studying them by bouncing X-rays off the diamonds’ inclusions, when they came across samples of ice VII—a form of ice that does not occur naturally at the surface. The find was significant, because ice VII forms at very high pressure—approximately the amount of pressure found at depths of 610 to 800 kilometers beneath the Earth’s surface. This, the team notes, suggests that water must have been freely flowing at such depths to form the inclusions they observed. Such depths, they further note, fall into the transition zone in the mantle, a part of the Earth’s interior that is still a source of mystery.Prior research has shown that the mantle is made up mostly of hot rock under a lot of pressure. It has a lower layer, closest to the core, a transition layer, and an upper layer that eventually meets the crust. Prior research has also shown that the upper mantle has some water, which hints that there may also be water in the transition layer. The diamonds the researchers were studying would have been encased in liquid somewhere in the transition zone. The high temperatures there would not have allowed them to crystallize, however—it was only as they moved to the surface that crystallization would have occurred. The high pressure would have been maintained inside the diamond, but the temperature would have dropped dramatically. The idea of water moving around in the transition layer is intriguing, the team reports, because it has implications for tectonic plate shifting. Using Argonne’s Advanced Photon Source, researchers identified a form of water known as Ice-VII, which was trapped within diamonds that crystallized deep in the Earth’s mantle. Credit: University of Chicago.
Boosted by a rally in stocks, total market valuation of listed companies at the National Stock Exchange (NSE) hit the Rs 100 trillion-mark on Wednesday. The market capitalisation (m-cap) of NSE listed firms rose to Rs 100.2 trillion at the end of trade. The 50-share Nifty hit a historic high of 8,741.85. The 50-share index also registered all-time closing high of 8,729.50, a gain of 33.90 points or 0.39 per cent.“Extending their northward journey for fifth day in a row, the key benchmark indices gained close to half a per cent. Initially, firm global cues helped index to open on positive note which later followed by a range bound session till the end,” said Jayant Manglik, President-retail distribution, Religare Securities Limited. At the Nifty, 27 stocks advanced, while 23 declined. Also Read – I-T issues 17-point checklist to trace unaccounted DeMO cashHUL was the biggest gainer with 5.34 per cent rise, while ITC with a loss of 5.15 per cent was the biggest loser at the Nifty. Bonanza Portfolio Senior Vice-President Rakesh Goyal said the crucial Budget date announcement was also a market mover. Scaling a similar peak, the total market valuation of all listed firms at the BSE had hit a record high of Rs 100 trillion in November last year. At present, the total market cap of BSE listed firms stands at Rs 1,02,56,540 crore. Meanwhile, rising for the fifth day in a row, benchmark the BSE Sensex on Wednesday set a life-time high of 28,958 points and NSE Nifty recorded a historic 8,741 points as overall macro outlook and optimism over forthcoming budget continue to buoy investor sentiment. The Sensex ended the day’s trade at a record 28,888.86, up by 104.19 points or 0.36 per cent from its previous close.
Darjeeling: Once again the intake pipe of the Nippon Hydel Project in Fincheytar, a settlement in the remote parts of Darjeeling, burst endangering the remote settlement.Though no loss of life has been reported, the huge volume of swift moving water destroyed the road, uprooted trees and washed away farmland of local residents. In the past also, there have been numerous instances of the intake pipe bursting in Fincheytar. Nippon Pvt Ltd is the first private hydro power project in West Bengal. Also Read – Rs 13,000 crore investment to provide 2 lakh jobs: MamataCommissioned 10 years ago it has a capacity of 3 MW of electricity generation. It is 70 km from Darjeeling and is located in the Bijanbari Block. According to local residents, the intake pipe, which is 4 km long and 4ft in diameter, feeds the reservoir tank supplying water from the Rittu Khola and Kalpokhari. “There pipe burst around noon on Wednesday flooding the road. The force with which the water gushed down the slope there was chances of landslide. Private drinking water pipes were washed away, tress were uprooted and farms were affected. The road to Setikhola remained closed owing to the swift moving water,” claimed a local resident. Also Read – Lightning kills 8, injures 16 in stateThe swift flowing water also damaged the road leading to the Dilpa village. “It is owing to utter negligence that this occurred. The pipe has been leaking at many places. Despite repeated complaints Nippon did not take any action,” added the resident. Around 1,500 people reside in Fincheytar. Incidentally there have been many incidents when the locals have blamed the hydel project for landslides in the area. “We have communicated the matter to the head office in Kolkata. They are sending a technical team for repairs. The plant is closed as of now. Once the technical team repairs the damages the authorities will sit with the local residents, hear their demands and then only the plant will resume operations,” stated a local employee of Nippon. The authorities of Nippon could not be contacted for comments. “We are aware of the situation. This has been occurring often. A permanent solution to the problem has to worked out. The Nippon authorities are in touch with us,” said Deepap Priya P, District Magistrate, Darjeeling. The Gorkha National Liberation Front submitted a memorandum to the project manager on Thursday demanding repairs of the pipeline, compensation for private property destroyed, construction of black top surfaced road with drain and from Nippon Guest House to Phedikhola intake along with water sharing during dry season for the agricultural fields. The project had been commissioned on May 8, 2007. The 3 Mega Watt Hydel Project developed by Nippon Power Limited, a Kolkata-based company, involves the water from two streams Kalipokhari and Rittukhola diverted into a forebay tank from where it rushed down 2 and a half km of channel to drive the turbines.
This hands-on workshop will give you the tools to authentically connect with an increasingly skeptical online audience. Websites are a necessity for businesses of all sizes today — though, surprisingly almost half of small businesses don’t have websites. Still, there are so many design options to choose from and so many websites that it can be tough to know how to stand out.Beyond layout and color scheme, there are a lot of features that are paramount to successful small-business websites. Some are obvious — such as an easy-to-remember domain name, a logo and contact information — and others are more subtle, like an online chat button or specific pattern for the content on the site’s inner pages. Thankfully, website design and marketing firm 99MediaLab offers pointers for an effective page from top to bottom, inside and out.Related: The 10 Best Cities to Be a Minority Small-Business Owner (Infographic)Check out the infographic below to learn the best features to have, as well as SEO tips and the technical aspects to consider. See if your site measures up.Click to Enlarge+ Opinions expressed by Entrepreneur contributors are their own. 1 min read April 2, 2016 Free Workshop | August 28: Get Better Engagement and Build Trust With Customers Now Enroll Now for Free
5 min read In Silicon Valley this week, a debate about the potential dangers (or lack thereof) when it comes to artificial intelligence has flared up between two tech billionaires.Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg thinks that AI is going to “make our lives better in the future,” while SpaceX CEO Elon Musk believes that AI a “fundamental risk to the existence of human civilization.”Who’s right?Related: Elon Musk Says Mark Zuckerberg’s Understanding of AI Is ‘Limited’ After the Facebook CEO Called His Warnings ‘Irresponsible’They’re both right, but they’re also both missing the point. The dangerous aspect of AI will always come from people and their use of it, not from the technology itself. Similar to advances in nuclear fusion, almost any kind of technological developments can be weaponized and used to cause damage if in the wrong hands. The regulation of machine intelligence advancements will play a central role in whether Musk’s doomsday prediction becomes a reality.It would be wrong to say that Musk is hesitant to embrace the technology since all of this companies are direct beneficiaries of the advances in machine learning. Take Tesla for example, where self-driving capability is one of the biggest value adds for its cars. Musk himself even believes that one day it will be safer to populate roads with AI drivers rather than human ones, though publicly he hopes that society will not ban human drivers in the future in an effort to save us from human error.What Musk is really pushing for here by being wary of AI technology is a more advanced hypothetical framework that we as a society should use to have more awareness regarding the threats that AI brings. Artificial General Intelligence (AGI), the kind that will make decisions on its own without any interference or guidance from humans, is still very far away from how things work today. The AGI that we see in the movies where robots take over the planet and destroy humanity is very different from the narrow AI that we use and iterate on within the industry now. In Zuckerberg’s view, the doomsday conversation that Musk has sparked is a very exaggerated way of projecting how the future of our technology advancements would look like.Related: The Future of Productivity: AI and Machine LearningWhile there is not much discussion in our government about apocalypse scenarios, there is definitely a conversation happening about preventing the potentially harmful impacts on society from artificial intelligence. White House recently released a couple of reports on the future of artificial intelligence and on the economic effects it causes. The focus of these reports is on the future of work, job markets and research on increasing inequality that machine intelligence may bring.There is also an attempt to tackle a very important issue of “explainability” when it comes to understanding actions that machine intelligence does and decisions it presents to us. For example, DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency), an agency within the U.S. Department of Defense, is funneling billions of dollars into projects that would pilot vehicles and aircraft, identify targets and even eliminate them on autopilot. If you thought the use of drone warfare was controversial, AI warfare will be even more so. That’s why here it’s even more important, maybe even more than in any other field, to be mindful of the results AI presents.Explainable AI (XAI), the initiative funded by DARPA, aims to create a suite of machine learning techniques that produce more explainable results to human operators and still maintain a high level of learning performance. The other goal of XAI is to enable human users to understand, appropriately trust and effectively manage the emerging generation of artificially intelligent partners.Related: Would You Fly on an AI-Backed Plane Without a Pilot?The XAI initiative can also help the government tackle the problem of ethics with more transparency. Sometimes developers of software have conscious or unconscious biases that eventually are built into an algorithm — the way Nikon camera became internet famous for detecting “someone blinking” when pointed at the face of an Asian person or HP computers were proclaimed racist for not detecting black faces on the camera. Even developers with the best intentions can inadvertently produce systems with biased results, which is why, as the White House report states, “AI needs good data. If the data is incomplete or biased, AI can exacerbate problems of bias.”Even with the positive use cases, the data bias can cause a lot of serious harm to society. Take China’s recent initiative to use machine intelligence to predict and prevent crime. Of course, it makes sense to deploy complex algorithms that can spot a terrorist and prevent crime, but a lot of bad scenarios can happen if there is an existing bias in the training data for those algorithms.It important to note that most of these risks already exist in our lives in some form or another, like when patients are misdiagnosed with cancer and not treated accordingly by doctors or when police officers make intuitive decisions under chaotic conditions. The scale and lack of explainability of machine intelligence will magnify our exposure to these risks and raise a lot of uncomfortable ethical questions like, who is responsible for a wrong prescription by an automated diagnosing AI? A doctor? A developer? Training data provider? This is why complex regulation will be needed to help navigate these issues and provide a framework for resolving the uncomfortable scenarios that AI will inevitably bring into society. Free Webinar | Sept. 9: The Entrepreneur’s Playbook for Going Global Register Now » Opinions expressed by Entrepreneur contributors are their own. July 28, 2017 Growing a business sometimes requires thinking outside the box.